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|Packing:||Discreet Packing For Customs Pass Guaranteed||Catalogue:||Sex Steroid Hormones|
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Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
Progesterone CAS 57-83-0 Progestogen sex hormone in brain function as a neurosteroid
Progesterone Quick Detail:
It belongs to a group of steroid hormones called the progestogens, and is the major progestogen in the body. Progesterone is also a crucial metabolic intermediate in the production of other endogenous steroids, including the sex hormones and the corticosteroids, and plays an important role in brain function as a neurosteroid.
Progesterone is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.
|Other name||beta-progesterone; corlutin; corlutina; corluvite; corporin; corpus luteum hormone; flavolutan; fologenon; gestone; gestormone; glanducorpin; hormoflaveine; hormoluton; lipolutin; lucorteum sol; luteal hormone; luteinique; luteodyn; luteogan; luteohormone; luteol; luteosan; luteostab; luteovis; Lutex; lutidon; lutocyclin; lutocyclinm; lutocylin; lutocylol; lutoform; lutogyl; lutren; lutromone; piaponon; pranone; pregnendione; pregnenedione; primolut; progekan; progesterol; progesteronum; progestin; progestone; prolidon; (S)-Pregn-4-en-3,20-dione; synovex s; syntolutan;|
|Appearance||White crystalline powder|
|Usage||Progesterone plays an important role in brain function as a neurosteroid.|
Progesterone is the most important progestogen in the body, the result of its action as a potent agonist of the nuclear progesterone receptor.
In addition, progesterone is an agonist of the more recently discovered membrane progesterone receptors, as well as a ligand of the PGRMC1 (progesterone receptor membrane component 1; formerly known as the σ2 receptor).
Moreover, progesterone is also known to be an antagonist of the σ1 receptor, a negative allosteric modulator of the nACh receptors, and a potent antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor. Progesterone prevents MR activation by binding to this receptor with an affinity exceeding even those of aldosterone and glucocorticoids such as cortisol and corticosterone, and produces antimineralocorticoid effects, such as natriuresis, at physiological concentrations.
In addition, progesterone binds to and behaves as a partial agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor, albeit with very low potency (EC50 >100-fold less relative to cortisol).
Progesterone, through its neurosteroid active metabolites such as 5α-dihydroprogesterone and allopregnanolone, acts indirectly as a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor.
Interactions with other steroid hormones
Progesterone has a number of physiological effects that are amplified in the presence of estrogens. Estrogens through estrogen receptors (ERs) induce or upregulate the expression of the PR. One example of Progesterone is in breast tissue, where estrogens allow progesterone to mediate lobuloalveolar development.
Elevated levels of progesterone potently reduce the sodium-retaining activity of aldosterone, resulting in natriuresis and a reduction in extracellular fluid volume. Progesterone withdrawal, on the other hand, is associated with a temporary increase in sodium retention (reduced natriuresis, with an increase in extracellular fluid volume) due to the compensatory increase in aldosterone production, which combats the blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor by the previously elevated level of progesterone.
Progesterone has key effects via non-genomic signalling on human sperm as they migrate through the female tract before fertilization occurs, though the receptor(s) as yet remain unidentified.
Detailed characterisation of the events occurring in sperm in response to progesterone has elucidated certain events including intracellular calcium transients and maintained changes, slow calcium oscillations, now thought to possibly regulate motility.
Interestingly, progesterone has also been shown to demonstrate effects on octopus spermatozoa.
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